Habitat loss and degradation
The main threats to survival of pygmy hog are loss and degradation of habitat due to encroachment by human settlements, agricultural encroachments, flood control schemes, and improper management. Some management practices, such as planting of trees in the grasslands and indiscriminate use of fire to create openings and to promote fresh growth of grass, have caused extensive damage to the habitats the authorities intend to protect.
Hunting for wild meat
Although there were reports of this when the species was first rediscovered in 1971 it was not thought to be a major threat to the species as the hogs were so elusive and hunting in the grasslands was made difficult by the presence of large carnivores. However, there is evidence to suggest that hunting is increasingly threatening remnant populations of the hogs, though the threat of hunting on the reintroduced population is minimised as their range lies in a more secure, protected area.